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Extracting Users from LinkedIn via Burp

We do a lot of pen tests and red teaming at Red Siege. Part of reconnaissance includes gathering a list of employees from a target organization. Typically, those usernames will be used in either phishing or password spray attacks (trying a few passwords across a long list of users). LinkedIn is a treasure trove of information! I'm going to use my good friends at Black Hills Information Security as my guinea pigs (sorry, and thanks!). The tool is here. First, let's look at what the data from LinkedIn looks like a response.



After performing a search for "Black Hills Information Security" we can look at the requests and responses. LinkedIn includes all the user information in responses to "/voyager/api/mux".

We can click the "Next" button a few times in our search to load multiple pages of info. Now, for the extraction. First, select everything in the "HTTP history" with Ctrl+A or Command+A on macOS. Second, right click in the top portion. …
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Beyond Net User - Part 2: DS Commands

In the previous post we discussed some of the limitations of Net commands. Most notably, the output limitation (doesn't show all groups) and it doesn't allow for flexible searching. In this post we'll discuss the DS commands to get around these limitations.
DSGet, DSQuery, DS* While these tools are useful, they aren't always available. As a pen tester and red teamer, I have to live with what I can find on the systems I come across. I find that these tools are still more widespread than the latest PowerShell Active Directory cmdlets, at least on non-system administrator systems. Here is a useful Stack Overflow post on the subject. Recursive Searches In the last post, we discussed a limitation in net group in that it doesn't show groups in other groups. The DS commands do! As a reminder, let's take a look at what we saw with net group when looking at the list of domain administrators.

Now let's do the same search, but use the dsquery and dsget.
dsquery group -…

Beyond Net User - Part 1: Limitations of the "Net" commands

I've had a number of cases where the Windows "net user", "net group", and "net localgroup" have failed me. I've had SQLMap fail to give the last line of "net user" output, I've had "net group /domain" not give me the full names (I still don't get how that failed!). On top of that, the commands don't support wildcards. Also, the output of those commands is a pain to parse due to the columns. I'd much prefer to use the AD PowerShell cmdlets, but those aren't always available. I set to find other ways to get the same data. First, let's look at the limitations of the "net" commands.
Net command limitations Hiding Groups in Groups Often when pen testing and red teaming, we would like to figure out information about the domain, most notably the members of the Domain Admins group. Output of the net group "domain admins" command as shown below.

It shows three members: Administrator, sqlagent,…

Better FDE Passphrase with macOS FileVault

I use full disk encryption (FDE) on all my laptops and portable media. I like to have a very strong passphrase for these, one that is even stronger than that for my user accounts. Let's be realistic, very very few people are going to use a 60 character passphrase for their daily account, but I wouldn't mind using that to unlock my laptop since I only have to enter it so rarely (and I go through customs a lot). With the Mac, there isn't a nice built in way to have a long unlock passphrase for FileVault and a more reasonable one for day to day use of the laptop. However, we can use the features we have in the OS to make this happen.
Summary:User 1 ("unlock") used solely to unlock the disk. This user has a long, secure passphrase. You won't use the device as this user. This user does not need to be an administrator.All other users, the day-to-day user(s) has a more manageable passphrase. At least one of these users is an administrator. Summary of steps:Create an…

3 Years of DirecTV User-Agent Command Injection

I found a bug in one of my DirecTV devices in 2015 after I got DirecTV. DirecTV didn't have a bug bounty program at that time so I used it as a demo in my classes. When AT&T bought DirecTV it then fell under AT&T's bug bounty, which is awarded quarterly. I forgot to submit it in the first post-merger quarger (2015Q4), so I submitted it 2016Q1. Screenshots from the bug bounty submission are at the bottom of this post.

EDIT: I in NO way want to steal the thunder from Ricky Lawshae and or diminish his hard work (although I think we can both agree this is about the lamest work either of use have ever had to do ;) ). My goal is to show how long crappy bugs like this sit.

I got bored a few years ago and decided to see what services the devices in my house expose.  A simple Nmap scan found listening web server on one of the devices. I browsed to it and I see this:


This is one of my DirecTV devices (I have DirecTV, solely so I can watch my precious Green Bay Packers on Sundays.…

Doll Hacking: The Good, The Bad(words) and the Ugly (features)

The age of internet connected toys is upon us. Increasingly, we are seeing children's toys connected to the internet, commonly through an app. I recently purchased a My Friend Cayla (http://www.myfriendcayla.com/) for uh…testing. I wanted to test the security of the device to see how safe it is for children.

In short, the toy does a good job of protecting children from inappropriate content, but any device (phone, tablet, laptop) can connect to the toy and play or record audio. That last bit scares me. The only protection against recording and arbitrary sound output is that only one device can be connected at a time. An opportunistic bad guy would only need to wait for the tablet or phone to go out of range or run out of battery.
Initial TestingI first needed to get a basic understanding of what Cayla can do and how she works. So I turned her on, connected her to my iPad via Bluetooth, and played with the app.

She began speaking and asking questions about me and my day. She is quite …

Extracting Access Point Names from Packet Captures

Years ago, while working as a Network Engineer, I did a bit of sniffing of our wireless access points. I noticed that some access point, mainly Cisco, broadcast the Access Point's name. I also noticed that the same access point will use a slightly different MAC Address (BSSID) for each SSID (ESSID). Typically the last nibble (half byte), or two, changes. I thought that was interesting, and moved on.

Now that I work as a penetration tester I want to correlate those access points, so I can tell exactly how many devices there are and the MAC addressing scheme. That way I can better identify something that is out of place, like a well place rogue.

Initially I did this by hand, and by hand means: teh suck!!!1! I knew there had to be a better way to do this, so I broke out scapy. I'll walk you through the process of creating a python script that extracts all the AP' MAC addresses, along with their corresponding Name and [E]SSID (if broadcast).

Let's start by looking a packet pr…